Influence of an Incidental Teaching Strategy on Psychological, Physiological and Motor Variables in Basketball Players of Different Ages and Skill Levels
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the incidental teaching strategies used now in the learning and/or performance of the skills developed in collective interactive sports, as well as to analyse the effect of an incidental teaching strategy via manipulation of the temporal, functional or combined conditions on psychological, physiological and motor variables of basketball players according to their age and skill levels. Methodology. The first study, which was descriptive, conducted a systematic revision of the studies published to date via several search processes through research sources. The moderating variables were coded and the data were extracted in order to later analyse them. In the second study, which was experimental, a sample of 24 university students (20.81 ± 1.76) with a low skill level was used. Four experimental conditions were developed based on a situation of a reduced basketball game (3x3 in the entire court), which was considered the first condition. In the second condition, the group possession time was limited to 7 seconds (temporal limit); in the third, the overall number of passes per attack was limited to 3 (motor limitation); and in the fourth, both were combined (temporal and motor limitation). The sessions we-re divided into 10 minutes of play for each experimental condition, with 5 series of 2 minutes each. In the third study, which was also experimental, the sample was 36 basketball players in the U14 category (13 ± 0.63), the U15 category (14.75 ± 0.45) and the U17 category (16.45 ± 0.63), with a moderate, high and very high skill level, respectively. The same experimental conditions as in the first study were repeated. An incidental teaching strategy was used based solely on manipulating the practice conditions. Results and Discussion. In the first study, 11 218 potentially relevant documents were located, but only 65 prospective studies conducted between 1992 and 2013 which fulfilled the selection criteria initially established. In the second study, the final sample was 3039 participants. The results show the advantages of having two systems to adapt to environmental changes, which allow reasoned decisions to be taken and more intuitive decision-making to be possible. In the experimental studies performed, the results showed that the environmental conditions had a significant effect on the psychological, physiological and motor variables of the participants, as well as a different sensibility according to players’ age and/or skill level. Conclusions. The players’ mental load in the tasks they perform in practice sessions should be taken into account in order to foster their adaptation to the different stimuli with which they are faced.