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Basic Psychological Needs in Spanish Athletes: validation of the “Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale”

Cristina De Francisco, Francisco José Parra-Plaza*, Pilar M. Vílchez

De Francisco, C., Parra-Plaza, F.J., & Vílchez, P.M. (2020). Psychological Needs in Spanish Athletes: Validation of the “Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale”. Apunts. Educación Física y Deportes, 141, 11-20. https://doi.org/10.5672/apunts.2014-0983.es.(2020/3).141.02

Abstract

In view of the growing interest in the satisfaction of basic psychological needs in the area of physical activity and sport, different instruments are being used to evaluate the degree of satisfaction or frustration of these needs. One such instrument is the (BNSSS), which is also relevant in that it acknowledges three factors, hitherto not evaluated, in the autonomy dimension (choice, volition and internal perceived locus of causality). In Spain, the BNSSS has only been validated for team sports, which is why the primary objective of this study was to validate it for use in any sport (individual or team). The study featured the participation of 795 athletes, 50.8% of whom were men and 49.2% women, with a mean age of 18.36 years (SD: 6.06). The EQS 6.3 program was used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis, factorial invariance for the gender, age, competitive level and sport type variables, as well as composite reliability between factors. Good model fit was observed, with comparative fit indexes (CFI) and non-normed fit indexes (NNFI) of .97, and a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.06. Factorial invariance was observed for the proposed subgroups and the composite reliably indexes were above .70. Therefore, the measurement instrument has good psychometric properties that make it possible to assess the satisfaction of basic psychological needs in the Spanish sports setting.

Key words

competence, autonomy, relatedness, sport, invariance properties
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